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Punk Rock

CYBER NOODLE SOUP is published from time to time, whenever we have a few pages of material. Address: Clark, P.O. Box 2761, St. Paul, MN 55102." Email

Metropolis released.

Early use of the word "punk" to signify a criminal


Dave and Lucile Packard move into house at 36 Addison Avenue, Palo Alto, California. Bill Hewlett rents cottage behind the house and Bill and Dave begin part time work in the garage with $538 in working capital. The company name is decided with a coin toss. The new partnership is known as Hewlett Packard. (June)


The word "cybernetics" coined by Norbert Wiener


The Naked Lunch published


The Stars My Destination (aka Tiger! Tiger!) published


The word "cyborg" coined by Manfred Clynes


Nippon Apattchi-zoku [The Japanese Apache] by Sakyo Komatsu published


MIT researcher Lawrence G. Roberts & Thomas Merrill connected A TX-2 computer in Massachusetts to the Q-32 in Palo Alto, California with a low speed dial-up telephone line creating the first (however small) wide-area computer network ever built. (Jan.)


The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress published


Velvet Underground releases White Light/White Heat


Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep published

Lawrence Roberts and the DARPA funded community refine the overall structure and specifications for the ARPANET, and bring it live. The Internet is born. (Aug.)


Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and colleagues at Bell Labs create the Unix operating system on a DEC-PDP-7 microcomputer. (June)


The Stooges release Funhouse
... From the Rise of Dr. Adder to the Fall of Johnny Mnemonic ...


K.W. Jeter completes Dr. Adder (Spring)

Pong debuts


"The Girl Who Was Plugged In" published in New Dimensions 3

Gravity's Rainbow published


Tank debuts


Microsoft founded

Shockwave Rider published


The Ramones release first album; punk begins

Atari sold to Warners Communications for $28 million


Apple Computers founded (April)

"Fragments of a Hologram Rose" published in Unearth (summer)

Never Mind the Bollocks - Here's the Sex Pistols released; punk gets notorious

The Clash release first album; punk gets serious

The Ophiuchi Hotline published


Generation X, with Billy Idol on lead vocals, releases first album

Survival Research Laboratories begins operations (Nov. 15)

Midway Games licenses Space Invaders


The Clash release London Calling


City Come A-Walkin' published

The Artificial Kid published

Missile Command debuts


"Johnny Mnemonic" published in Omni (May)

Spacetime Donuts published

"The Gernsback Continuum " published in Universe 11

"True Names" published

Sterling introduces Gibson's "Burning Chrome" to the writer's workshop in Austin

Gibson sends Terry Carr at Ace Books a five page outline for a novel to be called Jacked In (Oct. 14)


Gibson sends Carr a 32 page expanded outline for his novel now to be called Neuromancer (Jan. 18)

Sun Microsystems incorporated with four employees. (Feb.)

Software published

Gibson attends ArmadiloCon and reads the opening chapter of his work-in-progress, Neuromancer. "Behind the Mirrorshade: A Look at Punk SF" panel held. (Oct.)

Blade Runner released

Tron released


Cheap Truth begins publication

Software wins the Philip K. Dick award (Mar)

Gibson, Sterling and Shiner visit Rudy Rucker in Lynchburg after Balticon; Virginia hasn't been this hip since Thomas Jefferson was alive

War Games released

The short story "Cyberpunk" by Bruce Bethke published in Amazing Science Fiction Stories; this is, allegedly, the first use of the term anywhere (Nov.)

The word "transrealism" coined by Rudy Rucker who issues "A Transreal Manifesto" in The Bulletin of the SFWA (Winter)


Neuromancer published; "cyberspace" coined

Dr. Adder published

Decoder, a film by Klaus Maeck, released

Frontera published

Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution published

In Japan, robots kill four humans in separate incidents

Terminator released

2600 begins publication

VPL Research Inc. founded by Jason Lanier

Gardner Dozois, reviewing "hot new writers" for The Washington Post, refers to a group called "cyberpunks". The name sticks (Dec. 30)

High Frontiers begins publication


Schismatrix published

20 Minutes into the Future (aka Max Headroom) released

Eclipse published

Neuromancer wins the Philip K. Dick award (Mar.17)

Donna Haraway's "Manifesto for Cyborgs" published in Socialist Review (Apr.)

Neuromancer wins the Nebula award (May 4)

Japanese translation of Neuromancer published (July) [Nyuromansa]

Neuromancer published in France [Neuromancien]

Neuromancer wins the Hugo (Aug.26)

"Cyberpunks" panel convenes at the National SF Convention in Austin. Panelists are Rudy Rucker, John Shirley, Bruce Sterling, Lou Shiner, Pat Cadigan and Greg Bear (Aug. 31)

"Slamdancing in SF" published in REM #2


Burning Chrome published

Hardwired published

"Pakistani Brain" virus infects IBM computers world-wide (Jan.)

Rudy Rucker's "What is Cyberpunk?" appears in REM #3 (Feb.)

Count Zero published (Mar.)

Kim Stanley Robinson's parody "Down and Out in the year 2000" appears in IASF (Apr.)

Norman Spinrad's "The Neuromantics" published in IASF (May)

John Shirley confounds the elders at the Science Fiction Research Association panel "Cyberpunk or Cyberjunk" (June 28)

Cheap Truth ceases publication (Aug.)

Michael Swanwick's "A User's Guide to the Post Moderns" published in IASF (Nov.)

Mirrorshades published (Dec.)

Interzone reprints "the New Science Fiction" by Vincent Omniaveritas (Winter)

Paul Di Filippo completes first draft of Ciphers (Oct. 7)

Neuromancer published in Italy [Neuromante]

Max Headroom Coke commercial debuts (mid-March)


First German translation of Neuromancer published by Heyne

Science Fiction Eye premiers with all cyberpunk issue

Robocop released

Akira released

Bubble Gum Crisis begins in Japan

Decoder magazine begins in Italy

Mirrorshades published in Germany [Spiegelschatten]

Mirrorshades published in France [Mozaert en verres miroirs]

Reality Hackers begins publication

Max Headroom television series (the American version) premiers on ABC (Mar. 31). Thirteen episodes show before the program is cancelled

Max Headroom cover story in Newsweek (Apr. 20)

When Gravity Fails published


In England, Max Dowhham's "Cyberpunk: the Final Solution" published in Vague

Islands in the Net published

Mississippi Review entire issue published devoted to cyberpunk; academic colonization of the Movement begins in earnest

Metrophage published

Shatter graphic novel published

Going GaGa begins publication

bOING bOING begins publication

Wetware published (Apr.)

The Internet worm strikes (Nov.)

Mona Lisa Overdrive published (Nov.)

Mirrorshades published in Brazil [Reflexo do Futuro]

Mirrorshades published in Japan (Spring)

Interplay releases the Neuromancer Game; a computer role-playing game for the Apple II, Commodore C64, and Amiga

Saibapanku Amerika [Cyberpunk America] by Tatsumi Takayuki published in Japan

Neuromancer computer game released by Interplay for Apple, Commodore and Amiga systems


Wetware wins the Philip K. Dick Award

"Fiction 2000" conference held in Leeds (June)

Mondo 2000 begins publication

Neuromancer: The Graphic Novel published

The Cuckoo's Egg published

Semiotext(e):SF published

Cherry [comix] special cyberpunk issue published

Crystal Express published

Tetsuo:The Iron Man released

Timothy Leary interviews William Gibson

Phrack #24 distributed containing the E911 document hacked from BellSouth (Feb. 24)

Shadowrun computer game released

German jazz band, Blauer Hirsch, release their album Cyberpunk on FMP Records years before Billy Idol

Mattel introduces the PowerGlove


The Difference Engine published

Hardware released

EFF founded

Secret Service raids Steven Jackson Games in Austin (Mar. 1)

Harper's Magazine publishes "Is Computer Hacking a Crime?", a transcript of a WELL conference during which Phiber Optik hacks the TRW database and distributes John Barlow's credit history (Mar.)

Operation Sun Devil (May 7-9)

Paul Di Filippo's "Ribofunk" published in bOING bOING #2 (Winter)

In England, The Hardcore special "Cyberpunk is Dead" issue published (Winter)

alt.cyberpunk.chatsubo begins

Finnish edition of Mirrorshades [Peililasit] published

Infocom releases "Circuit's Edge," a computer role-playing game/Graphic Adventure for PC/DOS based on Effinger's When Gravity Fails.

Neuromancer published in Hungary [Neuromanc]

Cyberpunk video released by Mystic Fire


Postmodernism, or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism published

Storming the Reality Studio published

Synners published

Terminator 2 released

The Silicon Man published

Transreal! published

U.S. intelligence agents reportedly cripple Iraqi air defense computers with a virus during the Gulf War (Jan)

Lewis Shiner announces in the Op-Ed pages of the New York Times that he has resigned from cyberpunk (Jan.7)

Steven Jackson Games sues the Secret Service (May 1)

"Michelangelo" virus media panic begins (Dec.)

Finnish edition of Neuromancer [Neurovelho] published

La Primera Calle de la Soleda by G.H. Porcayo published in Mexico


EFF moves to Washington D.C. and is immediately compromised

The Hacker Crackdown published

Snow Crash published

Mondo 2000: A User's Guide to the New Edge published

Lawnmower Man released

"Michelangelo" doomsday; nothing happens (Mar. 6)

Jaron Lanier loses his patents to his creditors (Nov)

Future Sex begins publication (Nov)

Freejack released

Mortal Kombat debuts


Wired begins publication

Virtual Light published

Fringe Ware Review begins publication

Nemisis released. Gibson will later praise the film as "sort of early Gibson meets Terminator 2 ... it has a few bits that are just brilliant Cyberpunk."

Bubble Gum Crisis released in the West

Time Magazine "Cyberpunk" cover story; real cyberpunks outraged (Feb. 8)

Court rules in favor of Steven Jackson Games, Secret Service ordered to pay damages (Feb.)

Wild Palms premiers (May 16)

Billy Idol's new album Cyberpunk released; real cyberpunks outraged (July)

Flame Wars; The Discourse of Cyberculture published

Deus X published (Jan)

Shirow Masamune's "Ghost in the Shell" appears in the Japanese magazine Young Jump

Sony releases Johnny Mnemonic Game for PC/MAC - Full Motion Video Game.

Doom debuts

E-zine True Cyberpunk starts (April)

E-zine Linenoiz starts (November)


The Hacker and the Ants published

Data Trash published

Cyberia published

"VNS Manifesto" published in Unnatural: Techno-theory for a Contaminated Culture

Phiber Optic begins serving a 13 month sentence for computer intrusion and conspiracy (Jan.)

In Paris, "Cyber SM" gives first public demonstration of virtual sexuality, S&M style (Jan.)

Line Noiz e-zine distributes results of its opinion poll "Does Cyberpunk Still Exist?"; no conclusions, as usual (Aug. 12)

Western news media reports two thirds of Russian computer users have encountered viruses, 85% of those viruses were Russian made (Nov.)

Crypt Newsletter begins

10th anniversary edition of Neuromancer published (July)

Neuromancer published in Israel [Noiromanser]

Mirrorshades published in Israel [Mishkefe shemesh kesufim]


Linenoiz ends with issue 25 (January)

Diamond Age published

EFF retreats to San Francisco

The Cyberpunk Handbook published; cynical opportunism reaches new low

Synthetic Pleasures released

The Net released

Hackers released

From Australia, Geekgirl debuts on the Net (Jan.)

Kevin Metnick arrested by the FBI for numerous computer crimes (Feb. 15)

Italian police raid BITS Against the Empire BBS accusing the computer group of subversion (Feb. 28)

Wired UK edition begins (March)

The Steampunk Trilogy published (Apr.)

VR 5 premiers (May 24)

Virtual Futures conference meets at Warwick University (May 26-28)

Johnny Mnemonic released (May 26)

Silencio en la Memoria anthology published in Mexico

... Post-Johnny ...
Arthur & Marilouise Kroker publish "Johnny Mnemonic: The Day Cyberpunk Died" in Ctheory (June)

Gibsons screenplay for Johnny Mnemonic published (June)

Western news sources identify Bulgaria as the leading exporter of computer viruses

Bruce Bethke's Head Crash published (September)

Strange Days is released (Oct.)

K.W. Jeter's Blade Runner 2: The Edge of Human published-- to the consternation of all (Nov.)

Tomb raider debuts


Escape Velocity; Cyberculture at the End of the Century published

Clinton signs Communications Decency Act into US law (Feb. 8)

Future Sex goes online

Ramones break up

Ribofunk! collection published (Mar.)

Head Crash wins the Philip K. Dick Award (Apr. 5)

Datableed - the second Virtual Futures conference meets (May)

Wired magazine, as a preliminary action to a planned IPO, files a prospectus with the SEC valuing itself at $447 million -- 17 times greater than its actual revenues. Much derision follows in the financial press (May 30)

Sex Pistols reunion tour begins at Hollola, Finland (June 21)

Holy Fire Published (July)

Idoru published (Sept.)

Kyoko Date, the virtual girl, activated

Hacking the Future by Arthur & Marilouise Kroker published

Wired magazine's IPO tanks (Oct. 24)

Blade Runner 3: Replicants Night by K.W. Jeter published -- for no good reason (Nov)

Ghost in the Shell opens in the US


In Bulgaria, Kirtchev proclaims a new "Cyberpunk Manifesto." English and Spanish translations soon appear (Feb. 14)

Wired UK edition folds (Feb)

Freeware published (April)

US Supreme Court rules Communications Decency Act unconstitutional (Jun 26)

Blade Runner [computer game] released by Westwood (Nov)

First authorized Russian translation of Neuromancer [Neiromant] published by Terra Fantastica

Ciphers published

Saiba Panku Handobukka: Nihonban, a Japanese translation of the loathsome The Cyberbpunk Handbook, published though God knows why


Gibson / Maddox episode, "Kill Switch" premiers on The X-Files (Feb 15)

Burning Chrome stage adaptation opens in Chicago (Feb 6)

"Post/Cyberpunk Symposium" appears in Nova Express (Spring)

Abel Ferrara's film, New Rose Hotel, opens at the Venice Film Festival (Sept. 9)

Tea from an Empty Cup published

Terra Virtual: Navegantes del Milenio anthology published in Mexico

El Holograma Irlandes published in Mexico

The Cyberpink Project and Cyberpunk Information Database begins (Nov)


Norwegian edition of Neuromancer [Nevromantiker] published
Paul Di Filippo's "As Through a Pair of Mirrorshades Darkly" published in The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction (Feb.)

"Melissa" computer virus strikes (Mar. 26)

Matrix released (Mar. 31)

eXistenZ is released (Apr)

Sangue Sintetico: Anthologia del Cyberpunk Italiano published

All Tomorrow's Parties published (Oct.)

Y2K apocalypse enters final countdown. (Dec. 31)

Hackers attack the Defense Department computers more than 22,000 times in the course of the year


Earth's computer systems do not crash. The world does not end. (Jan. 1)

Gibson episode "First Person Shooter" airs on The X-Files (Feb. 27)

"I Love You" virus wrecks havoc on the world's computers (May 4)

Rudy Rucker's Realware published (May 12)

Hackers break into Nikes Web site and reroute all traffic to an Australian activist group organizing a protest at a Word Economic Forum meeting (June)

Notorious phone phreak John Draper (aka Captain Crunch) goes legit; sets up ShopIP, an internet security firm